Do you ever look at a map from a couple hundred years ago and think, "I thought that country was on the other side of Europe...?"
- Iberian Peninsula vs. Caucasian Iberia (modern day Georgia)
- Albania vs. Caucasian Albania (in present day Azerbaijan and southern Dagestan)
- Bulgaria vs. Volga Bulgaria (around present day Kazan) vs. Old Great Bulgaria (northeast of the Black Sea)
- Armenia vs. Kingdom of Armenia (from the South Caucasus to the Black Sea to Damascus) vs. Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (what is now southern Turkey)